Technology (VRFB)


VRFB characteristics make it an excellent fit for fixed, utility-scale storage where the battery will be used at least once per day

  • Long life and excellent performance
    • Nearly unlimited number of cycles, with a 20 year lifetime
    • 100% depth of discharge
    • Lowest cost per kWh when used once daily (or more frequently)
  • Safe and sustainable
    • Non-toxic
    • Non-flammable, water-based electrolyte chemistry
    • 100% of vanadium can be re-used once battery is removed
  • Additional benefits of the technology include
    • Quick recharge
    • Easily scalable, as power rating (MW) and energy (MWh) are independent
    • Proven operation in high ambient temperatures

  • VRFB is an excellent fit for daily storage (e.g. with solar PV), grid support (e.g. peak shaving, system balancing) and off-grid installations (e.g. farms, islands, mines and tourist sites)


As a result, VRFBs now offer performance advantages over other battery technologies, particularly for long-duration and frequent cycling

Two common large scale battery technologies have significant deficiencies in utility scale applications

  • Lead-acid batteries are the most abundantly used technology today but are also
    • Toxic
    • Prone to theft
    • Limited in large-scale, long- duration application due to a limit of under 2,000 cycles / lifetime
  • Lithium-ion batteries have high efficiency and power density, but also
    • Face scalability challenges
    • Feature high set-up and production costs
    • Are composed of toxic and flammable materials, making safety an issue in populated areas
    • Are still limited by 3,000-5,000 cycles and permit only partial depth of discharge (DoD), meaning over 50% of the battery rating cannot be used